NZ Arbitration Decisions

2005


AMALTAL CORPORATION LTD v MARUHA (NZ) CORPORATION LTD CA11-03 11 March 2004.pdf

Article 34(6) Arbitration Act 1996 – public policy – fundamental aspects of law – procedural and substantive – cannot reduce the integrity of the court system

METHANEX MOTUNUI LTD v SPELLMAN CA171-03 17 June 2004.pdf

Sch 1 art 34 – standing for arbitration agreement – party to arbitration agreement – defined legal relationship


2006


CARTER HOLT HARVEY LTD v GENESIS POWER LTD HC AK CIV-2001-404-1974 22 February 2006.pdf

Article 5 schedule 1 – court intervention – direct relationship between matters required

CASATA LTD v GENERAL DISTRIBUTORS LTD SC26-2005 15 March 2006.pdf

Costs – incomplete award if fails to deal with costs

MADILL & SMEED LTD v EBERT CONSTRUCTION LTD HC AK CIV-2006-404-882 9 August 2006.pdf

Extension of time – clause 7 Schedule 2 Arbitration Act 1996 – undue hardship – W&R Jack Ltd v Fifield [1999] 1 NZLR 48.
 

2008


SHADY EXPRESS LTD v SOUTH STAR FREIGHTLINER LTD HC AGN CIV-2008-485-026 14 March 2008.pdf

Enforcement of an arbitral award – arts 35 and 36, sch 1, Arbitration Act 1996 – adequacy of arbitrator’s reason for award

BODY CORPORATE 344862 v E-GAS LTD HC WGN CIV-2007-485-2168 23 September 2008.pdf

Application for summary judgment – test for arbitrable matters in dispute from the matters agreed – applied ‘anything disputable’ approach from Todd
Energy Ltd v Kiwi Power (1995) Ltd HC, Wellington, CP 46/01, 29/10/01 and Alstom New Zealand Ltd v Contact Energy  Ltd HC, Wellington, CP 160/01, 12/11/01

GENERAL DISTRIBUTORS LTD v MELANESIAN MISSION TRUST BOARD HC AK CIV-2008-404-4436 21 November 2008.pdf
 

2009


HENNAH v KELLY HC NAP CIV-2009-441-0103 17 June 2009.PDF

Appeal of arbitrator’s award – Question of law Gold and Resource Developments (NZ) Ltd v Doug Hood Limited

TUNER v BODY CORPORATE 361510 HC CHTCH CIV-2009-409-0307 12 August 2009.pdf

Article 8 sch 1 – inoperative and void arbitration agreement –stay of proceedings granted due to arbitration agreement despite third parties  

STATION PROPERTIES LTD (IN REC) v PAGET HC AK CIV-2009-664 22 December 2009.pdf

Application for summary judgment – test for arbitrable matters in dispute from the matters agreed –  applied ‘arguable grounds’ approach from Fletcher/Brown Joint Venture v Kiwi Dairies
Ltd HC, New Plymouth, CP 7/98, 27/5/98 and Natural  Gas
Corporation  of  New  Zealand  Ltd  v  Bay  of  Plenty  Electricity  Ltd HC Wellington, CP 179/99, 22/12/99


2010


SAFE KIDS IN DAILY SUPERVISION LTD v MCNEILL HC AK CIV-2010-404-1696 14 April 2010.pdf

Schedule 1 article 9 – power of court to grant interim measures – status quo definition.
 

2011


SPOTBURN FARMS LTD v STOCKCO LTD HC AK CIV-2010-404-3209 22 February 2011

Application for statutory demand – Contractual agreement for arbitration – Defects of statutory demand to set aside – Injustice – Dispute.

TGB HOLDINGS LTD v BFP TRUSTEES NO 1 LTD HC WH CIV-2009-488-566 1 March 2011

Freezing order – Pick wick basis –  Sole asset – Preparation for trial of proceeding – Dismissed – Ordinary course of business – No bad faith

TGB HOLDINGS LTD v BFP TRUSTEES NO 1 LTD HC WH CIV-2009-488-566 4 April 2011

Freezing Order – Application on notice – Equitable mortgage Hope v Hope, Buhr v Barclays Bank Plc – Ordinary course of business A v C, Gangway Ltd v Caledonian Park Investments (Jersey) Ltd, Bank of New Zealand v Hawkins – Jurisdiction – Legal fees as expenses Halifax Plc v Chandler, Sundt Wrigley Co Ltd v Wrigley, Rooney Earthmoving Ltd v McTague, Ward v Forsyth – Discretion – Interests of Justice

GAWITH v LAWSON HC MAST CIV-2010-435-253 4 May 2011

Application for summary judgement – Cross application for stay of proceedings – Contractual agreement to arbitrate dispute – Two approaches – Arguable defence/Indisputability Fletcher Construction New Zealand v South Pacific Co-operative Dairies Ltd – Stay precedent Todd Energy Limited v Kiwi Power (1995) Limited, Alstom New Zealand Limited v Contact Energy Limited – Stay – Notice  

STANAWAY REAL ESTATE LIMITED V COOPER & CO REAL ESTATE LIMITED HC AK CIV-2010-404-8007 18 May 2011

Appeal of arbitrator’s award – Question of law Gold and Resource Developments (NZ) Ltd v Doug Hood Limited

JUSTMINK LTD V TUHOE-WAIKAREMOANA MAORI TRUST BOARD HC RT CIV-2011-463-291 9 June 2011

Application to set aside arbitral award – Conflict with common law – Jurisdiction – Arguable basis

LAWSON AND ROBINSON V WENLEY HC NP CIV-2010-441-833 24 June 2011

Application appeal arbitral award – Jurisdiction – Partnership agreement – Discretion

TODD PETROLEUM MINING CO LTD V SHELL (PETROLEUM MINING) CO LTD CIV-2010-485-2122 and SHELL (PETROLEUM MINING) CO LTD V TODD PETROLEUM MINING CO LTD CIV-2010-485-2126 HC WN 30 June 2011

Application appeal arbitral award – Approach to granting leave Gold & Resource Developments (NZ) Ltd v Doug Hood Ltd – Strongly arguable – Discretion – Joint venture – Contractual obligations – Costs -

LUXOR VENDING LIMITED V THE WAREHOUSE GROUP LIMITED HC AK CIV-2011-404-4390 29 July 2011

Wrongful repudiation – Application for injunction

DUNICK V NICHOLSON HC AK CIV-2011-404-3549 30 August 2011

Application to enter arbitral award as judgement – Onus – Definition of ‘award’ – Costs

IRONSANDS INVESTMENTS LTD V TOWARD INDUSTRIES LTD HC AK CIV-2010-404-004879 8 July 2011

IRONSANDS INVESTMENTS LTD V TOWARD INDUSTRIES LTD HC AK CIV-2010-404-4879 30 August 2011

Costs – Successful strike out of application to set aside interim arbitral award – Granted

SCANTLEBURY v PINNY HC AK CIV-2010-470-000723 9 September 2011

Application for summary judgement – Personal liability NZHB Holdings Ltd v Bartells – New evidence

ALADDINS MOTOR INN LIMITED V BOWCORP HOLDINGS LIMITED HC PALM CIV-2011-454-412 16 December 2011

Application to set aside statutory demand – Application to appoint arbitrator – Substantial dispute North Harbour Equine Hospital Ltd v Little – Proper debts Miller v Mattin – Contractual exclusion of set-off Browns Real Estate Ltd v Grand Lakes Properties Ltd, Benjamin Dev Ltd v Robt Jones Ltd.
 

2012


LAWSON AND ROBINSON V WENLEY HC NP CIV-2010-441-833 22 February 2012

Application to appeal of arbitral award – Partnership Act – General justice and fairness consideration A’s Co Ltd v Dagger

CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION LTD V LUXTA LTD HC WN CIV-2011-485-1622 AND CIV-2011-485-1719 AND CIV 2011-485-1839 23 February 2012

Application for leave for stand down period – Error of law – Affecting rights of parties – Discretionary factors

BJ PYE SHEETMETAL 2009 LTD V FORSMAN HC WN CIV-2011-485-2115 21 March 2012

Appointment of arbitrator – Engineer role referral – Prescribed time – Delay

SOUTH PACIFIC INDUSTRIAL LIMITED V UNITED TELECOMS LIMITED HC WH CIV-2012-488-202 13 April 2012

Opposition of freezing order –  Jurisdiction Shaw v Narain, Bank of New Zealand v Hawkins, Klissers Farmhouse Bakeries Ltd v Harvest Bakeries Ltd – Flexibility – Good arguable case – Discretionary factors.

LIPP V CHANEY HC AK CIV-2011-404-8091 30 April 2012

Application for stay of arbitral award - Dismissed

IRONSANDS INVESTMENTS LTD V TOWARD INDUSTRIES LTD HC AK CIV-2010-404-1289 and CIV-2010-404-2012 and CIV-2010-404-6843 8 June 2012

Reserved judgement – challenges to international arbitral award – Strike out principles Downer-Hill Joint Venture v Government of Fiji, Shannon v Shannon, Paper Reclaim Ltd v Aotearoa International – Arbitration Act 1996 – Fraud The Amphill Peerage, Redcliffe Forestry Venture Ltd v Commissioner of Inland Revenue – Corruption of process – Material non-disclosure

TTAH LIMITED V KONINKLIJKE TEN CAFE N.V. HC AK CIV-2010-404-8250 18 June 2012

Application for stay of proceedings – Similar arbitration process contractually agreed – Discretionary

CARR V ALLAN HC AK CIV-2011-412-417 28 June 2012

Application to set-aside arbitral award – Error of fact and law – Grounds to set aside – Invalidity Kearney v Whitehaven Colliery Co, Carney v Herbert, McFarlane v Daniell, Humphries v Proprietors of “Surfers Palms North” Group Titles Plan 1995 – Absence of pleading/time bar – Merits – Estoppel Attorney-General v Howard – Methanex Motunui Ltd v Spellman – Contractual Mistakes Act 1977

MUDGWAY V DM ROBERTS LIMITED HC TAU CIV-2012-470-114 29 June 2012

Application to amen summary judgement application – Stay of proceedings – Alternative dispute resolution provided for – What constitutes invoking arbitration provision Royal Oak Mall Limited v Savory Holdings Limited.

IAKOPO v RUTHERFORD HC AK CIV-2012-404-1680 3 July 2012.pdf

Granting of interim injunction – did not apply schedule 1 article 9 but used the High Court Rules

LIPP V CHANEY HC AK CIV-2011-404-8091 and CIV 2012-404-321 20 July 2012

Appeal – Application to set aside arbitral award – Error of law – Onus of proof – Representation – Reasonable Reliance – Detriment – Unconscionability – Relief

RUA V MAMUKU HIGHLANDS LTD HC ROT CIV-2012-463-137 27 July 2012

Application to appeal against arbitral award – Jurisdiction Gold and Resource Developments (NZ) Ltd v Doug Hood Ltd, Pupuke Service Station Ltd v Caltex Oil (NZ) Ltd

LIPP V CHANEY HC AK CIV-2011-404-8091 and CIV 2012-404-321 3 September 2012

Costs – Equitable estoppel

LEEF V BIDOIS HC TAU CIV-2012-470-461 11 October 2012

Application to set aside arbitral award – Court intervention Pupuke Service Station Ltd v Caltex Oil (NZ) Ltd, Attorney-General v Prince, Couch v Attorney-General – Strike out application Abraham’s Wool Exchange v Norlake Wool Ltd, Downer-Hill Joint Venture v Government of Fiji, Ironsands Investments Ltd v Toward Industries – Agreement invalidity – Jurisdiction – Independence Duncan & Davies Nurseries New Plymouth Ltd v Honnor Block Ltd – Public policy conflict Amaltal Corporation v Maruha (NZ) Corporation Ltd, Deutsche Schachtbau-und Tiefbohrgesellschaft mbH v Shell International Petroleum Company Ltd, London Expert Corporation v Jubilee Coffee Roasting – Breach of natural justice

HIGHGATE ON BROADWAY LIMITED V DEVINE HC BLENHEIM CIV-2012-406-136 16 October 2012

Arbitrator jurisdiction – Tenant and landlord dispute – Arbitration agreement – High Court proceedings

ALADDINS MOTOR INN LIMITED V BOWCORP HOLDINGS LIMITED CA16-2012 14 November 2012

Appeal of decision to uphold statutory demand – common law and arbitral award Vector Gas Ltd v Bay of Plenty Energy Ltd – Costs

IRONSANDS INVESTMENTS LTD V TOWARD INDUSTRIES LTD HC AK CIV-2010-404-1289 and CIV-2010-404-2012 and CIV-2010-404-6843 13 November 2012

Costs

H&H CONTRACTORS LIMITED V LEIGHTON CONTRACTORS PTY LIMITED HC AK CIV-2010-404-4637 19 November 2012

Cancellation of contract – survival of arbitration clause

AS PIRE 2008 LTD v SPAZIO CASA FRANCHISING LTD HC AK CIV-2011-404-5949 [2012] NZHC 3153 26 November 2012

Costs

COGNITION EDUCATION LIMITED V ZURICH AUSTRALIAN INSURANCE LIMITED T-A ZURICH NEW ZEALAND HC AK CIV-2012-404-1246 5 December 2012

Objection to jurisdiction of court to refer dispute to arbitration – application for summary judgement priority Jowada Holdings Ltd v Cullen Investments Ltd – Two approaches Todd Energy Ltd v Kiwi Power (1995) Ltd, SL Sethia Liners Ltd v State Trading Corporation of India Ltd and Royal Oak Mall Ltd, Reilly v Fletcher, Auckland City Council c Auckland Tepid Baths Ltd (No.1) – Overview of case law

DISCOVERY GEO CORPORATION V STP ENERGY PTE LIMITED HC WN CIV-2012-485-2675 19 December 2012

Application for interim order – Arbitration decision pending – Jurisdiction Argyle Estates Ltd v Bowen Group Ltd, Advanced Cardiovascular Systems Inc v Universal Specialties Ltd, Bayat v Cecil, Rimini Ltd v Manning Management & Marketing Pty Ltd, Hamilton v Infiniti Capital Andante Ltd, Dale v Jeffrey – Relief – Balance of harm – Reasonable possibility of success – Delay
 

2013


MANCHESTER SECURITIES LIMITED v BODY CORPORATE 172108 HC AK CIV-2012-404-5937 13 February 2013

Application to set aside statutory demand – Remedial levy – Arbitration – Set-off – Statutory demand – Solvency 

GALLAWAY COOK ALLAN v EWAN ROBERT CARR [2013] NZCA 11 15 February 2013

Appeal of High Court decision to set aside arbitral award – agreement to refer to arbitration included invalid and unenforceable right of appeal on questions of fact – Jurisdiction – Excess of jurisdiction

ASPEC CONSTRUCTION WELLINGTON LTD v DELTA DEVELOPMENTS LTD HC WGN CIV-2012-485-2735 [2013] NZHC 5  7 March 2013

Interlocutory application for refusal of enforcement of arbitral award and application to set aside the award – breach of natural justice – refusal to allow time extension – is there a conflict with the public policy of New Zealand.

WATERS V PERRY FOUNDATION HC HM CIV-2011-419-1790 25 March 2013

Section 11 of the Arbitration Act 1996 not applicable to leases – determination of  contract as lease or licence

NAPIER CITY COUNCIL v CITYSCAPE NEW ZEALAND LTD HC NAP CIV-2012-441-406 [2013] NZHC 600 26 March 2013

Appeal on questions of law of interim arbitral award – misconstrued clauses of the lease 

HEALTHLINK LTD v ORION SYSTEMS INTERNATIONAL LTD HC AK CIV-2012-404-1167 [2013] NZHC 594 27 March 2013

Application for stay of proceedings – is the proceeding a matter which is subject to arbitration under the agreement – extension of arbitration agreements by common law or statute – related parties – interpretation of arbitration agreement

NEW ZEALAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT INSURANCE CORPORATION LTD v R+V VERISICHERUNG AG HC CHCH CIV-2012-409-2259 [2013] NZHC 690 9 April 2013

Application for summary judgment – responding application for stay of proceedings – arbitration clause function – Jurisdiction – avoiding interpretation of contract as this is the Tribunal’s role

NGAI TAHU JUSTICE HOLDINGS LTD v THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL HC CHCH CIV-2012-409-2405 [2013] NZHC 801 18 April 2013

Application to search documents filed in a proceeding – proceeding stayed through consent of parties until arbitration referral by the court – privacy of arbitration 

ZURICH AUSTRALIAN INSURANCE LTD TA ZURICH NEW ZEALAND v COGNITION EDUCATION LTD CA867-2012 [2013] NZCA 180 29 May 2013

Application to stay proceedings based on art 8 of the Arbitration Act 1996 – Dispute – Interpretation of art 8(1) – Jurisdiction 

KIWI EMPIRE CONFECTIONERY LTD v SINGH HC AK CIV-2013-404-7 [2013] NZHC 1272 31 May 2013

Application to set aside arbitration award – art 34 of the Arbitration Act 1996

DM ROBERTS LTD V MUDGWAY CA454-2012 [2013] NZCA 187 30 May 2013

Appeal to grant of stay for dispute to be arbitrated – Dispute for arbitration – arguable defence test 

LEEF v BIDOIS CIV-2012-470-0461 [2013] NZHC 1349 10 June 2013

Legal validity of the agreed to ‘Mana Whenua arbitration agreement’ –  Definition of arbitration agreement – Conflict of interest – Breach of natural justice – Discretion for court to set aside arbitral award

NEW ZEALAND LOCAL AUTHORITY PROTECTION PROGRAMME DISASTER FUND v THE NEW INDIA ASSURANCE COMPANY LTD CIV-2012-404-7453 [2013] NZHC 1327 6 June 2013

Application for stay of judgment – determined after conclusion of concurrent application for summary judgment – arguable defence – dispute 

CRANE DISTRIBUTION (NZ) LTD v DURRANT CIV-2012-404-7049 [2013] NZHC 1707 5 July 2013

Application for summary judgment and concurrent application for stay of judgment 

THE LAW CONNECTION LTD v ROCHE HC WGN CIV-2012-485-2103 [2013] NZHC 1742 12 July 2013

Application for summary judgment and concurrent application for stay of judgment – arbitration agreement excludes interlocutory relief, does this include summary judgement – arbitration agreement definition 

WILBUR TRUST LTD v MOXHAM HC AK CIV-2013-404-3125 [2013] NZHC 1968 6 August 2013

Application to set aside statutory demand – Arbitrator’s lack of jurisdiction – Genuine dispute

COXHEAD v WALLBANK HC TAU CIV-2013-470-0521 [2013] NZHC 2622 9 October 2013

Application to set aside arbitral award – Arbitrator’s error of law – Agreement to appeal on a question of law

LIGHTER QUAY RESIDENTS' SOCIETY INC V WATERFRONT PROPERTIES (2009) LTD HC AK CIV-2012-404-7509 [2013] NZHC 2678 15 October 2013

Comparison of arbitration and expert determination 

JERLING v MOSS BROTHERS LTD HC MAST CIV-2013-435-14 [2013] NZHC 2893 1 November 2013

Application to set aside arbitral award – Natural justice – Damages 

CENATIO LTD v PARAGON BUILDERS LTD HC WGN CIV-485-2720 [2013] NZHC 3057 14 November 2013

Application to set aside statutory demand – Abuse of process 

COXHEAD v WALLBANK HC TAU CIV-2013-470-0521 [2013] NZHC 3249 5 December 2013

Application to set aside arbitration award – Error of law – Valid commencement of arbitration - Breach of natural justice. 

WILES v BRANT HOMES LIMITED HC AK CIV-2013-404-03143 6 December 2013

Arbitration clause interpretation - Jurisdiction

BODY CORPORATE 172108 V MANCHESTER SECURITIES LTD HC CIV-2013-404-4284 10 December 2013

Application for leave to appeal against arbitral award under cl 5 sch 2 Arbitration Act 1996 in relation to repairs to a leaky building – remediation scheme approved by the court enabled respondent to carry out repairs and capped liability – body corporate issued a levy which the respondent disputed – arbitrator found that completion of the repair work on was not a pre-condition for applying the cap – should leave to appeal be given against the arbitrator’s interpretation of the clause?

FOODSTUFFS (WELLINGTON) COOPERATIVE SOCIETY LTD v HOLDEN HC AK CIV-2013-470-0223 [2013] NZHC 3379 16 December 2013

Application to set aside arbitral award against an error of law – Contract interpretation 
 

2014


SHELL (PETROLEUM MINING) COMPANY LTD v VECTOR GAS CONTRACTS LTD [2014] NZHC 31 AK 31 January 2013

Appeal against arbitration tribunal award – awards related to the allocation, quantum and pricing of gas – whether the Tribunal erred in ruling that the parties’ subsequent conduct should be excluded when interpreting the contract

GREEN ACRES FRANCHISE GROUP LTD v REUBE HC AK CIV-2014-404-0200 [2014] NZHC 402 7 March 2014

Interim injunction application for restriction of trade until arbitration occurs – art 17B of the Arbitration Act 1996 – serious issue to be tried – restraint of trade – balance of convenience

URSEM v CHUNG HC AK CIV-2013-404-3195 [2014] NZHC 436 12 March 2014

Application to stay proceedings and refer to arbitration – jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal.

R T VINCENT LIMITED v WATTS & HUGHES CONSTRUCTION LIMITED [2014] NZHC 847 _x000b_[29 April 2014].pdf

SHELL (PETROLEUM MINING) CO LTD v VECTOR GAS CONTRACTS LTD [2014] NZHC 1072 [20 May 2014].pdf

QUEENSTOWN MINI GOLF LIMITED v BRECON STREET PARTNERSHIP LIMITED [2014] NZHC 1101 [22 May 2014].pdf

Application for interim injunction – section 16, Arbitration Act 1996 – arbitral jurisdiction.

HOLDEN V FOODSTUFFS (WELLINGTON) CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY LIMITED CA1952014 [2014] NZCA 245 [16 June 2014].pdf


Application for special leave to appeal from reversal of arbitral award – lease of supermarket premises – interpretation – whether lessee liable for turnover rental following relocation – whether damages assessable on basis of turnover rent if premises remained open – requirements for special leave relating to arbitral awards. 


NICHOLS v THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL [2014] NZHC 1341 [16 June 2014].pdf

Application for leave to appeal from partial award under s 162A(5) Biosecurity Act 1993 – breaches of HC Rules – leave denied.

EWAN ROBERT CARR and BROOKSIDE FARM TRUST LIMITED v GALLAWAY COOK ALLAN [2014] NZSC 75 [20 June 2014].pdf 

Agreement to arbitrate – right of appeal from arbitral award extended to questions of fact – whether agreement enforceable despite invalidity – whether offending words severable – whether setting aside arbitral award was correct exercise of discretion under art 34, Schedule 1, Arbitration Act.

DANONE ASIA PACIFIC HOLDINGS PTE LTD v FONTERRA CO-OPERATIVE GROUP LTD [2014] NZHC 1681 [17 July 2014].pdf

Application for stay – claims relating to Fonterra supply of contaminated product for use in baby formula – arbitration commenced under supply agreement between main parties – jurisdiction to grant stay – whether stay appropriate in interests of justice. 

ALL METALS TRADING COMPANY LIMITED v HADLEY JOHN WRIGHT [2014] NZHC 2136 [5 September 2014].pdf

Application for summary judgment on guarantee for rent and outgoings over premises – effect of alternative dispute resolution clause and arbitration clause in ADLS standard form of lease – whether ADR right waived – arbitration clause will not usurp summary judgment process.

TODD PETROLEUM MINING COMPANY LIMITED V SHELL (PETROLEUM MINING) COMPANY LIMITED CA262011 [2014] NZCA 507 [17 October 2014].pdf

Appeal on question of law – joint venture relationship between parties involving the Kapuni oil and gas field in Taranaki – dispute over delivery of gas through the Whareroa pipeline – interpretation of Schedule 1 art 33(3) and art 34(3) Arbitration Act 1996 – time within which a party to an arbitral award, who had sought an additional award on a matter not resolved by the original award under art 33(3), might seek recourse against that award under art 34(3).

DANONE ASIA PACIFIC HOLDINGS PTE LTD v NUTRICIA LIMITED CA4382014 [2014] NZCA 536 7 NOV 2014.pdf

Appeal against temporary stay – claim relating to manufacture and supply of allegedly defective milk product – arbitration in Singapore under supply agreement would resolve critical issues in HC proceeding – whether stay appropriate exercise of discretion – whether stay should be amended to require completion of interlocutory steps.

WHITE v MAIDEN [2014] NZHC 3037 [1 December 2014].pdf

Objection to arbitrator under Schedule 1 of the Arbitration Act – whether conflicts of interest give rise to bias – whether objective test breached – no question of credibility in arbitration – no reasonable person would think possibility of bias. 
 

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